According to the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon (1885–90), peoples included in the Mongoloid race are North Mongol, Chinese & Indochinese, Japanese & Korean, Tibetan, Malay, Polynesian, Maori, Micronesian, Eskimo, and Native American.In 1994, the Mongoloid race, using a broad definition which included indigenous Americans, comprised 34% of the Earth's human population which made it the second most populous race behind Caucasoids who comprised 56% of the Earth's human population at that time.Johann Friedrich Blumenbach said that he borrowed the term Mongolian from Christoph Meiners to describe the race he designated "second, [which] includes that part of Asia beyond the Ganges and below the river Amoor, which looks toward the south, together with the islands and the greater part of these countries which is now called Australian".
(See also the articles Race and intelligence and Model minority.) The term "mongoloid" was introduced by 18th century ethnologists to describe Central Asian and East Asian populations, as part of a tripartite typological model of race: Mongoloid, Caucasoid, and Negroid.
Although some forensic anthropologists and other scientists continue to use such terms in some contexts (such as criminal justice), their usage is now discouraged by most anthropologists due to the questionable nature of such models.
In addition, "Mongoloid" has had a second usage, now generally avoided as highly offensive: until the late 20th century, people with Down syndrome Mongoloid or Asiatic peoples are the most spread out among all human populations since they have stretched almost completely around the earth's surface.
They can be found as far "east" as Greenland, and yet also as far to the "west" as Kalmykia and the Crimea, giving Asiatic peoples or their descendants a historical presence across the vast expanse of four continents.
She said that even the people who consider American Indians to be a separate race acknowledge that they are genetically closest to "Asians". Futuyma, professor of evolutionary processes at the University of Michigan, said that the inclusion of Native Americans and Pacific Islanders under the Mongoloid race was not recognized by many anthropologists who consider them distinct races. Marta Mirazon Lahr of the Department of Biological Anthropology at Cambridge University used the term Mongoloid to refer to Asian populations, Indigenous Australians, Pacific Islanders, Negritos, and Amerindians, classifying Northeast Asians as typical Mongoloids and all other Mongoloid groups as atypical Mongoloids.
separately listed the Mongoloid race from Pacific islanders and American Indians when he enumerated the "geographical variants of the same species known as races..recognize several races, Inuit, American Indians, Mongoloid... Finns were previously considered by some scholars to be partly Mongoloid, dating to claims by Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
Finns (and other Finno-Ugrians in Europe) are now considered typically European.
is a term for peoples indigenous to East Asia, Central Asia, Southeast Asia, Siberia aka North Asia, Northern Europe, the Arctic, the Americas, parts of the Pacific Islands, parts of Africa (Madagascar), and parts of South Asia.
Individuals within these populations often share certain associated phenotypic traits, such as epicanthic folds (epicanthus), sinodonty, and neoteny.